Sports and Reconciliation

Calls to Action #87 through #91

Saturday, June 1, 2019

#TRC90: Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway: How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway?



Research Project

Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway: How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway?

Jason Anson
Athabasca University
Course: Research Methods in the Social Sciences
( SOSC 366 )


Abstract

On December 15, 2015 Justice Murray Sinclair released The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's final report to the public. In his report was a “Sports and Reconciliation” section that had five “Calls to Action” for the federal government to implement. The Canadian Heritage department manages Sport Canada which works with partners, including provincial and territorial governments, Multisport Service Organizations (MSO), National Sport Organizations (NSO), Canadian Sport Centres (CSC) and other organizations. The Sports and Reconciliation Calls to Action are Number 87 through 91. The purpose of this study is to explain How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway?



Introduction/Research Purpose

I recognize that the Athabasca University Review Board is not reviewing or approving this research. This study is simply to meet course requirements.

In Canada, we would begin what is known as the ‘Truth and Reconciliation Era’ (TRC Era) when in 2008, a Commission began recording the stories of “survivors” of the Canadian Indian Residential School system[1]. Seven years later on December 15, 2015 Justice Murray Sinclair released The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's final report to the public [2] - which included 94 “Calls to Action” for the government to implement. In the Murray Sinclair TRC report was a “Sports and Reconciliation” section with five “Calls to Action” (#87-91) [12].

Less than 45 days after the calls to Action were released. On January 27, 2016 CBC reports that the Aboriginal Sport Circle has a “New guide [that] shows indigenous people’s path to sport, a’ lifelong’ activity: Olympian Alwyn Morris behind online resource aiming to bring aboriginal, non-aboriginal athletes together”[10].  In an effort to create more elite Indigenous athletes, the Sport for Life Society, in conjunction with Aboriginal Sport Circle, created the “Aboriginal Long-Term Participation Development Pathway”[11]. A programming support for “long-term indigenous athlete development” that is the adaptation of the Sport for Life’s “Long-Term Athlete Development” philosophy[9] - which mainstream National Sport Organizations (NSO)[7] in Canada have adopted since 2004.

This research allowed me to satisfy my curiosity and see how the Sport for Life Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway is doing since its announcement in 2016. I now have a better understanding of where things are at. This research project allowed me to develop methods that can be used in future studies.

I believe my research provides new insights into this topic of Indigenous Sport.  The adapted LTAD resource is a Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action solution the government has identified (TRC #90) as a “completed item” on their TRC Calls to Actions. This study may be of interest and use to politicians, academics, Indigenous people of Canada or anyone else concerned about whether or not progress has been made in this area. Specifically my research focuses on the Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action #90[2]

TRC #90. We call upon the federal government to ensure that national sports policies, programs, and initiatives are inclusive of Aboriginal peoples, including, but not limited to, establishing:
In collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, stable funding for, and access to, community sports programs that reflect the diverse cultures and traditional sporting activities of Aboriginal peoples.
An elite athlete development program for Aboriginal athletes.
Programs for coaches, trainers, and sports officials that are culturally relevant for Aboriginal peoples
Anti-racism awareness and training programs.

 The Government of Canada responded to TRC Calls to Action #88 “We call upon all levels of government to take action to ensure long-term Aboriginal athlete development and growth, and continued support for the North American Indigenous Games, including funding to host the games and for provincial and territorial team preparation and travel.” by providing the funds to develop TRC Calls to Action #90.

On their website, the Government of Canada writes “Budget 2017 announced investments of $18.9 million over 5 years, starting in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, and ongoing funding of $5.5 million every 4 years thereafter, to support Indigenous youth through sport initiatives.”  The government specifically states that some of the money is intended for “national sport organizations [NSO] and multisport service organizations [MSO] to ensure long-term indigenous athlete development and growth through increasing the offering of culturally relevant sport programming”.

Research Question: Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway: How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway?

Research Methods: In the case of this study, the Multisport Sport Organizations (MSO) is a) the Sport for Life Society and b) the Aboriginal Sport Circle. These two MSO’s have created a PDF document called the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway. By doing an exploratory study, I will be able to build on this literature review that examines the implementation of the mainstream sport use of the Sport for Life’s Long-Term Athlete Development philosophy.


Literature/Review/Theoretical Framework

As a researcher I believe I am breaking new ground as there are no academic papers available on the Sport for Life Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway[11]. However, this Long-Term Athlete Development Pathway[9] philosophy is not new to non-indigenous people and as a result there are a number of Academic papers on the topic in many different sports. In my Literature review I identified a number of critics on the implementation of the Long-Term Athlete Development philosophy including Dr. Rushall who writes that “The LTAD content discussed in the various articles is largely unscientific and non-­reviewed. Much smacks of sporting "folk lore" (hereafter referred to as "lore"), a compendium of beliefs unfounded in fact, and puzzling logic.”. Rushall uses his paper to dismiss the sport sciences used in the Long-Term Athlete Development calling it a “pseudo-science” and “at best, baffling” [17].

CBC further reports that Morris states "We're hoping that it's going to help bring both the aboriginal sports stream and the non-aboriginal sports stream together.  To start to work together in providing opportunities for aboriginal communities and aboriginal participants at large, both on reserve and in the urban centres,"  [10].

Three years after the TRC Calls to Action #90 were marked completed by the Government of Canada, it would be interesting to know How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada are implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway.

This study aims to focus on How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implement the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway. On the release of the TRC Calls to Action, The Globe and Mail reported the same day that the Government of Canada’s “Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says he will develop a blueprint for national reconciliation with indigenous peoples” [3] (Dec. 15, 2015).

To implement a Trudeau Blueprint in the Sports and Reconciliation section of the TRC Calls to Action, The Prime Minister will assign it to a branch of The Canadian Heritage Department [4] which manages Sport Canada[5]. They will need to work with its partners, including provincial and territorial governments (PSO), Multisport Service Organizations (MSO)[6], National Sport Organizations (NSO)[7], Canadian Sport Centres (CSC)[8] and other organizations to deliver the solutions for the TRC Calls to Action #87-91.


Review of Literature

1. The Long-Term Athlete Development Canada: Attempting System Change and Multi-Agency Cooperation by: Norris, Stephen R. is a synopsis published in Current Sports Medicine Reports (American College of Sports Medicine) , Nov/Dec2010, Vol. 9 Issue 6, p379-382, 4p. Publisher: American College of Sports Medicine., Database: Supplemental Index.

In this paper, Dr. Norris did not disclaim his affiliation with the Sport for Life Society.  Dr. Norris states that “In Canada, LTAD clearly is tied to a philosophy that spans a broad narrative from healthy active lives to elite sport performance.”[13]. Imagine we are talking about a pathway of steps one takes throughout their lifetime as the philosophy states from “cradle to grave”[13]. The idea is, if you do not become an Elite (Olympic) Athlete, at least you have the fundamentals to be a healthy person. However after 15 years in the marketplace, there is no longitudinal study to determine if this philosophy works or not. The writer claims success with the program in that “as of January 2010, 35 National Sport Organizations had completed their sport specific LTAD guides, and another 7 were close to completion.”[13].  - “After close to 6 years of activity, the CS4L has colossal momentum, but the surface of what is truly possible has only just been scratched.”[13]. When you consider there are 58 National Sport Organizations, we are talking about a 53% success rate of implementation. However, there is no Quantitative data on exactly how that implementation looks. A view that is echoed by Shane Peterson, ​VP of BMX at Alberta Bicycle Association since 2008. He tweets on twitter “Implementing / integrating the NSO LTAD into the coaching training program is proving more difficult than first thought.”[14].  Norris continues to write that “the essential vision of this policy is for Canada to have (by 2012) "a dynamic and leading-edge sport environment that enables all Canadians to experience and enjoy involvement in sport to the extent of their abilities and interests and, for increasing numbers, to perform consistently and successfully at the highest competitive levels."

The LTAD Philosophy is built on “four pillars” which includes “participation, excellence, capacity, and interaction”[13].

2. The implementation of LTAD as a template to improve youth participation in physical activity and sport. Introducing change in a sport organization. By: Lachance, A. Science & Sports. Oct2014 Supplement, Vol. 29, pS37-S38. 1p. DOI: 10.1016/j.scispo.2014.08.073. , Database: Academic Search Complete

Unlike Dr. Norris, the writer Lachance, who authored the second academic paper does add the disclaimer of their affiliation to the Sport for Life Society, Canada. However, this paper isn’t supported with scientific research, but rather serves as a presentation that “will look at the important aspects of implementing change in an organization using a step by step approach including: enhancing your knowledge of LTAD; identify and empower more champions; provide a reality check; create and share your vision; gain organizational support; and communicate progress.” [15].

3. Coaches’ Adoption and Implementation of Sport Canada’s Long-Term Athlete  Development Model. By: Charlotte Beaudoin; Bettina Callary; François Trudeau. In: SAGE Open, Vol 5, Iss 3 (2015); SAGE Publishing, 2015. Language: English, Database: Directory of Open Access Journals

In this third academic paper, the writer Beaudoin adds the conflict of interest that her research paper was funded by Sport Canada Research Initiative and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Sport Canada also funds the Sport for Life Society Long-Term Athlete Development philosophy. This comprehensive study attempts “to explore how Canadian coaches adopted or implemented Sport Canada’s LTAD model and to understand the barriers they perceived in adopting and implementing it.” [16]. It does this by calling the LTAD a “social innovation” based on Rogers’s (2003) theoretical framework.

The writer believes that there are “relative advantages of LTAD. LTAD was the first athlete development model officially adopted in Canadian sport as part of a policy. Thus, LTAD itself does not replace an existing model.” [16]. However, this is incorrect as pointed out by Dr. Rushall in his paper; Interpreting and Implementing the Long Term Athlete Development Model, where he writes “Canada has had a penchant for developing government­ centered control models for sports (e.g., the belated and ill­ fated Game Plan '76; the institution of coaching certification of various levels of expertise and generality/specificity; the advocacy of administrative tools that required at least quadrennial plans for sports at the provincial and national levels (starting in the late 1970s); and this latest machination – the LTAD). Canada's failure to recapture its era of accomplishment (1978­-1984) through governmental "guidance" (a requirement for funding) casts doubt on the value of such enterprises.”[17].

The writer attempts to add legitimacy to the Sport for Life Society Long-Term Athlete Development through a “values” based system as opposed to scientific sport science evidence. Although the writer does acknowledge “that the LTAD model could provide a common vocabulary for coaches and emphasize the importance of teaching fundamental skills, Martindale, Collins, Beaudoin et al. 15 and Daubney (2005) raised concerns regarding its scientific merit in a study of the LTAD implementation in the United Kingdom. ”[16].

The writer concludes that the “barriers hindering LTAD implementation included (a) lack of organizational support regarding implementation of the model, (b) shortage of evidence-based research on the model, and (c) complexity of the model when viewed in its entirety, and the difficulty in getting all sports persons involved in implementing the LTAD model’s recommendations.”[16].

4. Research Notes: Interpreting and Implementing the Long Term Athlete Development Model: English Swimming Coaches' Views on the (Swimming) LTAD in Practice: A Commentary. By Swimming Science Bulletin Number 38, Produced, edited and copyrighted by Professor Emeritus Brent S. Rushall, San Diego State University.

This final fourth academic paper is the only paper that has no affiliation to Sport Canada or the Sport for Life Society. It is also the only paper that is critical towards the LTAD Philosophy. Dr. Rushall writes that “The LTAD content discussed in the various articles is largely unscientific and non­reviewed. Much smacks of sporting "folk lore" (hereafter referred to as "lore"), a compendium of beliefs unfounded in fact, and puzzling logic.”. Rushall uses his paper to dismiss the sport sciences used in the Long-Term Athlete Development calling it a “pseudo-science” and “at best, baffling” [17].

According to Rushall the Sport for Life Society Long-Term Athlete Development philosophy is based on debunked sport sciences from the time period where the German easter bloc dominated the Olympic games. Rushall writes that “ The model is primarily the proposal of a single individual (Balyi, 1990). It is based on a mix of research, popular non ­refereed theories, and dogma associated with sports
training that has many roots in the bygone era of Eastern Bloc sports programs.” [17].

One thing is clear from my literature review that implementing the Sport for Life’s Long-Term Athlete Development in Mainstream sport is not easy or clear. Further after 15 years since its introduction, it claims only 55% success rate at implementation. And this is the solution the Government of Canada has provided to resolve the TRC Calls to Action #90. 


Study Population

As of 2018, Canada had a population of 37 Million. [1] In Canada the government has centric approach to sport. In the 2016 Canadian Census, the Indigenous population of Canada was 1,673,780 or 4.9% of the Canadian population.  In Canada the Indigenous population is accounted by the combination of 977,230 First Nations people, 587,545 Métis, and 65,025 Inuit. [2] According to Stats Canada, 56% of Indigenous people live in urban areas. There are “600 First Nations/Indian bands in Canada and 3,100 Indian reserves across Canada” [4].

My research will not focus on Individuals or Groups, but rather Organizations as a unit of analysis.  The individual non-profit corporations are characterized in terms of the Canadian Heritage Department Sport Canada’s list of National Sport Organizations (NSO)[7] and Multi Sport Organizations (MSO)[6]. Specifically my research will focus on the Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action #90[2].

The Government of Canada writes on their website that “National Sport Organizations (NSOs) - sometimes referred to as National Sport Federations (NSFs) - are the national governing bodies for any given sport in Canada”. On the government website they list 58 National Sport Organizations. These NSO’s can be organized into Summer and Winter Sports. Within the Summer Sports category, a North American Indigenous Games (NAIG) category can be created to identify summer sports that are included in the NAIG Games.


Context of Study

This cross-sectional study will only be with National Sport Organizations within Canada that are identified by the government of Canada. Currently Sport Canada list 58 National Sport Organizations within Canada. 

Overview of Role
The National Sport Organization (NSO) is considered the authority in a sport. Within this framework of the NSO, they work with their Provincial Sport Organizations (PSO) to create a network within the sport. The NSO will govern all things related to the sport within that network in Canada. In other countries the NSO might be identified as a National Governing Organizations (NGO).  Many if not all of the NSO’s in Canada will have an International Sport Federation, often referred to as the World Governing Organization (WGO). The International Sport Federation often provides the global framework for the National Sport Organizations or NGOs to be part of. 

The NSO will then partner with different Multi Sport Organizations (MSO) within the Sport Canada framework . These institutions are meant to support the NSO in their role. One of the MSO’s is the Aboriginal Sport Circle and the Sport for Life Society. Neither provide services like the NSO, but rather provide resources such as a PDF pathway that has been created below “Double Helix”. In the Double Helix sport system we have an a) Aboriginal Stream and b) Mainstream sport pathway that if one follows, can have an opportunity to go from a) playground to b) podium. 


Figure 4: Aboriginal Participant Pathway - Two Streams - This model is based on Aboriginal Sport Leader and Elder Alex Nelson's teachings. [4]

Structure
In the mainstream pathway, the National Sport Organizations govern each sport and are put into three categories a) Summer, b) Winter and c) Other sports. The categories of  Summer and  Winter refer to Olympic sports that compete at both events for Canada. The c) Other category is made of sports that are non-Olympic. 

The idea is that “the Aboriginal sport system evolved to address the marginalization
that was occurring and to create a system that would understand and support
the needs of Aboriginal peoples.”[3]. Ideologically the aboriginal athlete will go from a marginalized situation to cross over to a mainstream success system through sport. “It also demonstrates how the two are interconnected/interdependent sport streams that link and work together.”[4].

Location
The Aboriginal Sport Circle (MSO) is located in Ottawa and the majority of National Sport Organizations (NSO) are also located in Ottawa, Ontario near the Heritage Department of Canada.  However, the trend over the past two decades has more NSO’s moving to Vancouver Island and in particular, Victoria, B.C. The mild climate allows coaches and athletes to train year round. As a result the NSO can bring the complete team of professionals together to deliver their Olympic programs (pathway). 

Membership
Membership in the mainstream system includes coaches and athletes, plus support people (who often volunteer within the sport) and pay the NSO to be a participant. The MSO aboriginal stream doesn’t actually have an independent NSO that parallels the mainstream. Rather, the Aboriginal Sport Stream relies on the Mainstream to host events in each sport so that the aboriginal youth may cross over and participate. However, there are First Nation communities and regions that host their own sport events that are independent from the Government of Canada’s NSO and MSO sport system that delivers the Double Helix sport programs.  

Focus of the National Sport Organizations
Therefore for the Double Helix sport system to be successful in Canada, it will require the assistants and buy-in from the National Sport Organizations. However, traditionally the NSO focuses on the Olympic Pathway for coaches and athletes in the mainstream system and not the aboriginal stream. 


Sampling

 The Ideal sampling technique for this proposal is census sample as this study was drawn from the Government of Canada's National Sport Organizations list. The ideal sample size is the entire 58 National Sport Organizations identified by the Government of Canada. It is ideal, because this is the maximum amount that can be sampled, thus providing an accurate picture of the broadest range of the research.

Methods and Data Collection

The first thing I did was an observatory research in that I visited the website of each of the 58 National Sport Organizations and completed the following survey.



Once I  completed the observatory research from the NSO website,  I compiled the data for further analysis. In addition to the observatory research, I conducted a Census Survey Research by emailing a Questionnaire to the 57 National Sport Organizations (one website was down and not available). The Census Survey timeline for responses was a 3-week period between May 7, 2019 and May 28, 2019. The following Email was sent to the general inquiry website email address (25.5%), A website form that I copied and pasted the below email into (52.7%) or/and the CEO/President of the NSO (18.2%).
-----
Sent from: jasonansonedu@gmail.com
Re: Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway

To Whom it May Concern,

My name is Jason Anson and I am a sociology student at Athabasca University who is completing a Social Research Project for my course SOSC 366 - Research Methods in the SOSC.

For this project, I have chosen the topic of Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway and specifically I am researching How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway?

I am hoping that either the person in charge of your Indigenous initiatives or the executive leader of your organization (ie. CEO/President) would be kind enough to participate in the Census Survey at: https://forms.gle/a9pSEX1PCacoHmkV7

The responses are being collected for 3-week period between May 7, 2019 and May 28, 2019. Feel free to contact me if you have any further questions. Further, I would like to thank you for your participation.

Kind Regards,

Jason Anson


Confidentiality of the Information Collected:

Anonymity: Anonymity is considered when no one can link the data with the data provider. As a result, because of the use of e-mails in the research design, the information provided could possibly be linked to the person or organization who sent it. I cannot guarantee anonymity. However, I can ensure confidentiality.

Confidentiality: In this research project participants have the right to privacy of their names, the maintenance of dignity and protection against harm. As a result, I can assure confidentiality to the actual person completing the questionnaire on behalf of the National Sport Organization.

-----
From there a series of 15 questions were asked in the Census Survey in order to answer my research question, How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway? To create the below questionnaire, I used Quantitative and Qualitative methods For example, I created a Quantitative Questionnaire below. 






Ethical Issues 

This research project was a voluntary participation and consent. In this research project participants had the right to privacy of their names, the maintenance of dignity and protection against harm. As a result, I assured confidentiality to the actual person completing the questionnaire on behalf of the National Sport Organization.  I could provide anonymity of the sport organizations’ name as it is required to compile the data. The main ethical issue with this study is that the Athabasca University Review Board is not reviewing or approving it. As a result, I have been turned down by perspective participants in a one-on-one interview for this study. Therefore it is important for the reader to understand that this study is mainly designed for the purpose of demonstrating what a social research study can look like. Prior to the taking the Census Survey and also in the introductory email above. The below disclaimer were made to all participants prior to commencing.


Findings, Analysis and Conclusions 

National Sport Organization Observatory Research Results

When I visited 58 National Sport Organizations, one of them had no website and one of their websites was under construction with no data available on it. In the end, I was able to visit 56 National Sport Organization website and record the following responses to the questions.



Out of the 56 National Sport Organizations observed, 62.5% were sports in the Summer Olympic Games, 19.6% were sports in the Winter Olympic Games and 17.9%  were deemed other because they were not in the Olympic Games.


Out of the 56 National Sport Organizations, 21.4% of them were in the North American Indigenous Games (NAIG). All the games within NAIG are considered Olympic Summer Games sports.

The majority of National Sport Organizations had a dedicated LTAD section (96.4%). While the remaining two organizations did not have one. It is important to note that the two missing the LTAD section are considered summer sports that are considered “target” sports for the Summer Olympics. These two organizations at one point did have an LTAD section in the past, however it appears to have been removed from the system as a whole. Which is evident under their coaching section of the website how no longer aligns with the LTAD philosophy.

Only two of the 58 National Sport Organizations listed the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway PDF. Both NSOs are summer sports and are in the North American Indigenous Games. 

None of the National Sport Organizations listed the upcoming 2020 NAIG in Halifax, N.S. Although it is more than a year out at this point, it is still common for sport organizations to list upcoming major events a year or two in advance. This allows those travelling and training for the events to be prepared with proper timing. 

Only 2 out of the 58 National Sport Organizations listed an Indigenous Sport Initiative. One of them is a summer sport that is in the North American Indigenous Games. Unfortunately, this same NSO uses a stereotypical “indian” head logo as their official logo. The other sport is a winter sport and is not part of the North American Indigenous Games. 

The Aboriginal Sport Circle (MSO) in partnership with the Coaches Association of Canada (MSO) developed long-ago an Aboriginal Coaching Module which was recently updated. However, none of the National Sport Organizations listed it on their websites. 



When you consider that 56 National Sport Organizations receive federal taxpayer funding to operate. It is no wonder that 80.7% of them listed a Sport Canada logo on their website thanking them for their partnership. Only 17.9% made no mention of support from Sport Canada. Perhaps they are not funded by them any longer which is a growing trend in politics. Since the NSO prime mandate is the Olympics within their sport, various partnerships were displayed by different Olympic organizations such as a) Own the Podium (39.3%), b) the Canadian Olympic Committee (32.1%) and c) their sports International Federation (14.3%). This pathway to the Olympics is supported with a partnership of Canadian Sport Centres across Canada. To which 7.2% showed a logo link back to the organizations website. 

When it came to showcasing the partnerships at the Multisport Organization (MSO) level, the support drops from the National Sport Organization (NSO). With only one NSO displaying a) The Sport for Life and b) the Aboriginal Sport Circle logo as their partner. 

National Sport Organization Census Survey Research Results

When it came to the Census Survey, about 9% of the National Sport Organizations participated. 

Out of the participants, 80% of them knew about the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway. One of the participants (20%) did not know about it. 

Out of the participants those who knew about the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway PDF  read it, while the one who didn’t know, had not. 



When it came to having an Indigenous initiative in their sport, 60% of participants said they did not, while 40% (or 2) said they did. However, it is important to note that upon visiting these two website, no evidence of such initiative existed. 


The majority of participants (80%) said they did not have a person dedicated to work with Indigenous communities. While one of them (20%) said they did. Again, this same sport organization does not actually list such a person on their website to contact. 


Out of the National Sport Organization participants, 20% (1) of them said they had not reached out to an Indigenous community to collaborate, while 20% (1) of them said that they reached out to between 11-20. The majority of respondents (3) said that they reached out to under 10 Indigenous communities.  When we consider that there are 3,100 Indian reserves across Canada” [4]. We are talking about the participants reaching out to less than 1% of them. In Canada. Thus many First Nations are advocating for “nation-to-nation” communications, which means they want to be engaged on a one-to-one basis. 

The participants said that 40% of the time Indigenous communities have not contacted the organization to collaborate. Whereas under 10 communities had reached out to the NSO to collaborate. 

None of the participants had any brochures or materials that show Indigenous people in them which would help them to identify with their sport. The TRC #90 - 3 calls for: Programs for coaches, trainers, and sports officials that are culturally relevant for Aboriginal peoples.

None of the National Sport Organizations participants had specific aboriginal championships such as an Indigenous National Championships. It is important to note that the TRC Calls to Action #90 - 1 calls for: In collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, stable funding for, and access to, community sports programs that reflect the diverse cultures and traditional sporting activities of Aboriginal peoples. If there is no National Championships, how then, can the “TRC #90 - 3 Calls to Action: An elite athlete development program for Aboriginal athletes”  be successful.  In reality, what are you training for if there are no National Championships to attend, such as listed in the Double Helix diagram?

Again as per the Double Helix diagram, none of the participants had Aboriginal Tournament Select Teams participating in their sport. This again speaks to the failure of the TRC #90 - 3 Calls to Action: An elite athlete development program for Aboriginal athletes.

Again as per the Double Helix diagram, none of the participants had Aboriginal Tournament  in their sport. Which again speaks to TRC #90 - 3 Calls to Action: TRC #90 - 3: An elite athlete development program for Aboriginal athletes. If there are no Aboriginal Tournaments, then there is no Aboriginal Select Teams to participate in those tournaments. 

None of the respondents had any people who identified as Indigenous status on their Board of Directors. 

Despite having no competitions, tournaments, select teams or board members that identified as Indigenous status. 40% (or 2) of respondents said they had Indigenous Teams or Clubs within their organization. 


Within the Indigenous teams or clubs within the participants organization was marginalized to actually 1 or 2 persons only per National Sport Organization.   

None of the Respondents’ National Sport Organization hosted for its members the Aboriginal Coaching Module workshop provided by Coaches Association of Canada.  


It is important to note, that while NSO#1 and #4 state that they are essentially doing nothing. There is no evidence that NSO#2, 3 and #5 are doing anything either. For example NSO#5 states that they have posted on their website, yet the website is a very small website with limited pages. It clearly is not on the website. In the case of NSO#3 stating that they have a) an adapted curriculum and b) coaching module for Indigenous communities, I was not able to find any information on their website about it. As with NSO#2, there was no information available to the public to conclude there is such development in progress. 


Conclusion

Research Question: Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway: How are the National Sport Organizations (NSO) in Canada implementing the Sport for Life (MSO) Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway? 

On their website, the Government of Canada writes “Budget 2017 announced investments of $18.9 million over 5 years, starting in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, and ongoing funding of $5.5 million every 4 years thereafter, to support Indigenous youth through sport initiatives.”  The government specifically states that some of the money is intended for “national sport organizations [NSO] and multisport service organizations [MSO] to ensure long-term indigenous athlete development and growth through increasing the offering of culturally relevant sport programming”.

It has been three years since the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway PDF has been released. The Government of Canada says that TRC Calls to Action #90 is complete. The government on their website states that they have provided funding to “national sport organizations and multisport service organizations to ensure long-term Indigenous athlete development and growth through increasing the offering of culturally relevant sport programming”. Yet, out of 58 National Sport Organizations, only one of them had the PDF Posted on it. None of them advertised or promoted the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway despite the majority of the respondents in the Census Survey knowing about it.  The Government website further states that “As this initiative is implemented, the government will look for opportunities to profile excellence among Indigenous youth in sport, which will help to develop an elite athlete program for Indigenous athletes, as per Call to Action 90.”. 

On the CBC “Beyond 94”, a website that provides analysis on each of the TRC Calls to action they write  “according to a spring 2017 update, Sport for Life says its next steps in 2018 will be to train additional learning facilitators to deliver the Aboriginal Long-Term Development Pathway workshops throughout Canada, in partnership with provincial/territorial sports bodies and provincial/territorial governments.”. 
Further CBC writes that “regarding anti-racism training, in June 2017, the Coaching Association of Canada and Aboriginal Sport Circle launched revised versions of the Aboriginal Coaching Modules (ACM), to better address racism in sport.”. - “The ACM is a professional development tool for all coaches across Canada who coach Indigenous, Métis or Inuit athletes. It’s offered through the National Coaching Certification Program. 

CBC continues “According to the Coaching Association of Canada news release, coaches attend a workshop that addresses holistic approaches to coaching, racism in sport and individual and community wellness.” However we can see in my research project that none of the National Sport Organizations were hosting this workshop to their members.  

When you consider in the Literature Review, where Dr. Rushall writes that “The LTAD content discussed in the various articles is largely unscientific and non-­reviewed. Much smacks of sporting "folk lore", a compendium of beliefs unfounded in fact, and puzzling logic.”[17]. Combined with when Charlotte Beaudoin paper that concludes that the “barriers hindering LTAD implementation included (a) lack of organizational support regarding implementation of the model, (b) shortage of evidence-based research on the model, and (c) complexity of the model when viewed in its entirety, and the difficulty in getting all sports persons involved in implementing the LTAD model’s recommendations.”[16]. 

A picture starts to emerge that the solution provided for the TRC Calls to Action #90 isn’t based on any scientifically validated evidence. It becomes more clear that the Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway is not “completed” and that the Government of Canada status at best is still “in-progress” in regards to the TRC Calls to Action #90. 


References

[1] Canadian Indian Residential School system - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Indian_residential_school_system 
[2] Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015) - http://caid.ca/DTRC.html
[3] Trudeau vows to develop plan to put Canada on path to 'true reconciliation' - https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/truth-and-reconciliation-head-calls-for-action-as-final-report-released/article27762924/ 
[4] Canadian Heritage - https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage.html 
[5] Sport Canada - https://www.canada.ca/en/services/culture/sport.html 
[6] Multisport Service Organizations (MSO) - https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/sport-organizations/national-multisport-service.html 
[7] National Sport Organizations (NSO) - https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/sport-organizations/national.html 
[8] Canadian Sport Centres (CSC) - https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/sport-organizations/canadian-olympic-paralympic.html 
[9] Sport for Life Society Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) - http://sportforlife.ca/quality-sport/long-term-athlete-development/ 
[10] New guide shows indigenous people path to sport, life-long activity - http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/new-guide-shows-indigenous-people-path-to-sport-life-long-activity-1.3422781
[11] Aboriginal Long-Term Participant Development Pathway - http://sportforlife.ca/portfolio-view/long-term-participant-development-pathway-1-1/ 
[12] Government of Canada l Sports and reconciliation: https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1524505883755/1524505915831 
[13] The Long-Term Athlete Development Canada: Attempting System Change and Multi-Agency Cooperation by: Norris, Stephen R.. Current Sports Medicine Reports (American College of Sports Medicine) , Nov/Dec2010, Vol. 9 Issue 6, p379-382, 4p. Publisher: American College of Sports Medicine., Database: Supplemental Index. 
[14] Shane Peterson Twitter - https://twitter.com/Shane_Peterson 
[15] Coaches’ Adoption and Implementation of Sport Canada’s Long-Term Athlete  Development Model
[16] The implementation of LTAD as a template to improve youth participation in physical activity and sport. Introducing change in a sport organization.
[17] Research Notes: Interpreting and Implementing the Long Term Athlete Development Model: English Swimming Coaches' Views on the (Swimming) LTAD in Practice: A Commentary.
[18] Population of Canada - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_of_Canada
[19] Indigenous Peoples in Canada - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_in_Canada 
[20] ALTPD-FINAL-WEB.PDF  
[21] Indian Reserve -  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_reserve


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